Calculated Risks The Toxicity And Human Health Risks Of Chemicals In Our Environment Book PDF, EPUB Download & Read Online Free

Calculated Risks
Author: Joseph V. Rodricks
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139459511
Pages: 358
Year: 2006-11-23
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Safeguarding economic prosperity, whilst protecting human health and the environment, is at the forefront of scientific and public interest. This book provides a practical and balanced view on toxicology, control, risk assessment and risk management, addressing the interplay between science and public health policy. This revised edition provides a detailed analysis on chemical and by-product exposure, how they enter the body and the suitability of imposed safety limits. Chapters on dose, with particular emphasis on children and vulnerable subpopulations, reproductive and developmental toxicants and toxicity testing are included. With updated and comprehensive coverage of international developments of risk management and safety, this will have broad appeal to researchers and professionals involved in chemical safety and regulation as well as the general reader interested in environmental pollution and public health.
Calculated Risks
Author: Joseph V. Rodricks
Publisher:
ISBN: 051125024X
Pages: 339
Year: 2007
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With updated and comprehensive coverage of international developments in risk management and safety, this will have broad appeal to researchers and professionals involved in chemical safety and regulation, as well as to the general reader interested in environmental pollution and public health"--Jacket.
Calculated Risks
Author: Joseph V. Rodricks
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 0521423317
Pages: 256
Year: 1994-01-28
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Public concern regarding environmental pollution and chemicals present in foods, consumer products, and the work place are at an all time high. While there is widespread awareness, confusion still reigns, aggravated by conflicting reports concerning carcinogens in food and drinking water, or about chemicals present in medicines and household products that may cause birth defects. The central purpose of this book is to describe how scientists come to understand the toxic properties of such chemicals and the health risks they may pose. Rather than attempting to expose governmental and corporate ignorance, negligence or corruption, this book explores the underlying scientific issues.
Radiation Risks in Perspective
Author: Kenneth L. Mossman
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 0849379784
Pages: 207
Year: 2006-10-20
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Public misperception of radiological risk consistently directs limited resources toward managing minimal or even phantom risks at great cost to government and industry with no measurable benefit to overall public health. The public’s inability to comprehend small theoretical risks arrived at through inherently uncertain formulae, coupled with an irrational push to eliminate all risk with no contextual understanding of overall benefit, results in a forfeiture of valuable advances in technology in favor of an illusion of safety. Radiation Risks in Perspective uses general concepts underlying radiological risk as a model to illuminate the fundamental problems in public perception, reaction, and policy when faced with possible health risks. Presenting three distinct themes, the author summarizes the causes for the failure of the current system and proposes methods for correction. Beginning with a discussion of the methods used to measure threat, the author weighs the nebulous assessment of risk with the use of a quantifiable assessment of hazardous dose, which uses actual numbers that the public can readily understand and that decision makers can confidently use to enact policy and measure success. Secondly, the author addresses the contextual balancing of cost versus benefit when prioritizing expenditure, specifically emphasizing that it is inappropriate to analyze and discuss individual risks without regard to the presence of other risks. Finally, the author analyzes the public’s tendency to push toward zero risk tolerance, an extremist approach that leads to unreasonable restrictions on technologies, excessive regulatory compliance costs, and the ultimate loss of goods and services. With detailed explanations and illustrative case studies, Radiation Risks in Perspective offers scientists, lawyers, engineers, policy makers, and public health professionals, the skills they need for a rational evaluation of risk.
Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health
Author: Gurumurthy Ramachandran
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 0323354084
Pages: 286
Year: 2016-07-21
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Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health provides a systematic overview of nanoparticle risks and considers the limitations of this paradigm in a context where extreme uncertainties prevail. As well as exploring conventional risk assessment methodology, the contributing authors investigate several alternate approaches. The adequacy of current frameworks for risk management and regulatory oversights, including corporate approaches in the US and EU, are explored, and suggestions are made as to how these frameworks can be modified to make them more efficient and effective. Presenting a coherent framework for analysis of the available information, this book presents the latest scientific understanding of the toxicity and health effects of nanoparticles, the technical issues relating to exposure assessment and management, and the ways in which the current risk paradigm can be used/modified to deal with the challenges of nanoparticle risks. All chapters of this new edition have been thoroughly updated to reflect the many changes in the field since the first edition. Additions and updates in the second edition of the book include: New exposure assessment strategies for nanomaterials including life cycle exposure assessment approaches and detailed information on nanoparticle exposure control and protection in the workplace. A state-of-the-art scientific update on the hazard and risk assessment of nanomaterials: discussion of key additional publications on the toxicology and biokinetics of nanomaterials; available data and methods to characterize the health hazard and risk of exposure to nanomaterials in the workplace; additional examples of the use of such data and methods to develop occupational safety and health guidance; and discussion of progress to date, ongoing efforts, and remaining challenges in nanomaterials hazard and risk characterization. New studies on the use of expert judgment in nanotechnology. Quantitative data from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s 4-phase study. A description and evaluation of new CB tools and new ISO technical specifications. A comprehensive update of the legal frameworks in the US and the EU. With the second edition of Assessing Nanoparticle Risks to Human Health Prof. Ramachandran provides researchers and practitioners producing or using nanoparticles, or those involved in nanomaterials risk assessments, technology, health science, policy, safety, environment and regulatory aspects an invaluable reference to adopt the right technologies and strategies and to comply to legal frameworks and regulations. For policy makers and advisory firms it provides the knowledge needed to advise on compliance with or development of new regulations on nanomaterials. Makes essential reading for risk assessment professionals, companies working with nanoparticles, nanotechnology research groups and regulators Explores the use of risk assessment methodologies in an occupational health setting, and their limitations Provides a framework for evidence-based decision making in a context with many uncertainties
Public Health Risk Assessment for Human Exposure to Chemicals
Author: K. Asante-Duah
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9401004811
Pages: 352
Year: 2012-12-06
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In fact, with the control and containment of most infectious conditions and diseases of the past millennium having been achieved in most developed countries, and with the resultant increase in life expectancies, much more attention seems to have shifted to degenerative health problems. Many of the degenerative health conditions have been linked to thousands of chemicals regularly encountered in human living and occupational/work environments. It is important, therefore, that human health risk assessments are undertaken on a consistent basis - in order to determine the potential impacts of the target chemicals on public health.
Pandora's Poison
Author: Joe Thornton
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262700840
Pages: 611
Year: 2001-02
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The dangers of organochlorides and a proposed solution.
Drinking Water and Health,
Author: Board on Toxicology and Environmental Health Hazards, Safe Drinking Water Committee, Division on Earth and Life Studies, National Research Council, Commission on Life Sciences
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309031982
Pages: 299
Year: 1982-01-01
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Risks of Hazardous Wastes
Author: Paul E. Rosenfeld, Lydia Feng
Publisher: William Andrew
ISBN: 1437778437
Pages: 472
Year: 2011-03-22
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Hazardous waste in the environment is one of the most difficult challenges facing our society. The purpose of this book is to provide a background of the many aspects of hazardous waste, from its sources to its consequences, focusing on the risks posed to human health and the environment. It explains the legislation and regulations surrounding hazardous waste; however, the scope of the book is much broader, discussing agents that are released into the environment that might not be classified as hazardous waste under the regulatory system, but nonetheless pose substantial hazards to human health and the environment. It provides a background of some of the major generators of hazardous wastes, explains the pathways by which humans and wildlife are exposed, and includes discussion of the adverse health effects linked to these pollutants. It provides numerous case studies of hazardous waste mismanagement that have led to disastrous consequences, and highlights the deficiencies in science and regulation that have allowed the public to be subjected to myriad potentially hazardous agents. Finally, it provides a discussion of measures that will need to be taken to control society’s hazardous waste problem. This book was designed to appeal to a wide range of audiences, including students, professionals, and general readers interested in the topic. Provides information about sources of and health risks posed by hazardous waste Explains the legislation and regulations surrounding hazardous waste Includes numerous case studies of mismanagement, highlights deficiencies in science and regulation and discusses measures to tackle society’s hazardous waste problems
Encyclopedia of Environmental Health
Author: Jerome O. Nriagu
Publisher:
ISBN: 0444522662
Pages: 1079
Year: 2011
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Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence:
Author: Committee on Science, Technology, and Law, Federal Judicial Center, National Research Council, Policy and Global Affairs, Committee on the Development of the Third Edition of the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence
Publisher: National Academies Press
ISBN: 0309214211
Pages: 1038
Year: 2011-09-26
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The Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence, Third Edition, assists judges in managing cases involving complex scientific and technical evidence by describing the basic tenets of key scientific fields from which legal evidence is typically derived and by providing examples of cases in which that evidence has been used. First published in 1994 by the Federal Judicial Center, the Reference Manual on Scientific Evidence has been relied upon in the legal and academic communities and is often cited by various courts and others. Judges faced with disputes over the admissibility of scientific and technical evidence refer to the manual to help them better understand and evaluate the relevance, reliability and usefulness of the evidence being proffered. The manual is not intended to tell judges what is good science and what is not. Instead, it serves to help judges identify issues on which experts are likely to differ and to guide the inquiry of the court in seeking an informed resolution of the conflict. The core of the manual consists of a series of chapters (reference guides) on various scientific topics, each authored by an expert in that field. The topics have been chosen by an oversight committee because of their complexity and frequency in litigation. Each chapter is intended to provide a general overview of the topic in lay terms, identifying issues that will be useful to judges and others in the legal profession. They are written for a non-technical audience and are not intended as exhaustive presentations of the topic. Rather, the chapters seek to provide judges with the basic information in an area of science, to allow them to have an informed conversation with the experts and attorneys.
Managing Risks of Nitrates to Humans and the Environment
Author: W S Wilson, A S Ball, R H Hinton
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 1845693205
Pages: 348
Year: 1999-01-01
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This volume concentrates on research information on the beneficial effects of nitrates and their fate in the environment. Adopting an integrated approach it covers the agricultural, environmental and medical aspects of this emotive topic. In addition, there is an extensive description of the biochemistry of nitrates in plants, animals and humans including the positive aspects as well as the hazards.
An Introduction to Industrial Chemistry
Author: C.A. Heaton
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 0751402729
Pages: 413
Year: 1996
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This edition of a very well received and highly successful book continues to distil the essential elements of a difficult and diverse subject.
Engineering Tools for Environmental Risk Management
Author: Katalin Gruiz, Tamas Meggyes, Eva Fenyvesi
Publisher: CRC Press
ISBN: 1315778777
Pages: 566
Year: 2015-04-27
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Chemical substances, physical agents and built structures exhibit various types of hazard due to their inherent toxic, mutagenic, carcinogenic, reprotoxic and sensitizing character or damaging to the immune and hormone system. The first steps in managing an environment contaminated by chemical substances are characterization of hazards and quantification of their risks. Chemical models — using only analytical data — are still the most widely used applications for assessing potential adverse effects and the fate and behavior of chemicals in the environment. Chemical models rely on the assumption that the adverse effect is proportional to the concentration, which in most cases is incorrect. In this volume, other models such as biological and ecological or regression models are discussed in detail and compared. Environmental risk management has two subsections: risk assessment and risk reduction. Environmental risk, to a large extent, arises from the adverse effects of chemicals and contaminated land; that is why measuring and testing these effects plays a key role in risk management. “Environmental Toxicology” deals with direct measurement of adverse effects of pure chemicals or environmental samples. This book has therefore been created specifically for engineers and gives a general overview of environmental toxicology. It provides an overview of hundreds of standardized and nonstandardized, generic and site-specific, conventional and innovative, animal and alternative test methods, and demonstrates how to apply these results to the regulation and management of environmental risk. In addition to human, aquatic and terrestrial methods for measuring toxicity, new trends in environmental analytics and the integration and complementary use of chemical analyses and the testing of effects are described. Bioavailability and accessibility as key parameters are detailed and the interactive and dynamic characterization of contaminants in soil is introduced. Emphasis is placed on the evaluation and interpretation of environmental fate and adverse effect data as well as the simulation of environmental processes and effects in microcosms and mesocosms.
In Silico Toxicology
Author: Mark T. D. Cronin, Judith C. Madden
Publisher: Royal Society of Chemistry
ISBN: 1849730040
Pages: 669
Year: 2010
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In silico methods to predict toxicity are becoming increasingly important, particularly in light of European legislation such as Reach and the Cosmetics Regulation. They are also being used extensively worldwide e.g. in the USA, Canada, Japan and Australia. The objective of In Silico Toxicology: Principles and Applications is to enable the reader to develop new, and use existing, in silico methods to predict the toxicity and fate of chemicals. It develops the theme in a logical sequence leading the use through the retrieval, and assessment of quality, of toxicological data and information; the calculation of descriptors and properties; the basis of statistical techniques for quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARS); the interpretation and validation of models for regulatory use; the mechanistic basis to modelling; as well as chemical grouping approaches and application of the models for risk assessment. The book also addresses other aspects of in silico toxicology including how to predict both external and internal exposure and the role of in silico approaches in integrated testing strategies. The contributions from recognised leaders in each of these areas include evidence of the use and applicability of approaches using real world case studies concerning both environmental and human health effects. The book is relevant to toxicologists and modellers using in silico toxicological approaches to perform risk assessment for regulatory purposes and product development. Series Editors: D Anderson, University of Bradford, Uk MD Waters, ILS, N Carolina, USA TC Marrs, Edentox Associates, Kent, UK The field of toxicological research is continually expanding and diversifying driven by the need to understand the human and ecological risks of exposure to chemicals and other toxicants. This series is devoted to coverage of modern toxicology and assessment of risk and is responding to the resurgence in interest in the of scientific investigation.